Asia Pulp and Paper is an Indonesian-based entrepreneurial business that produces paper, pulp, and power. It was established in 1998 and is currently the largest paper producer in Indonesia and the second-largest globally. The company strives to be a major producer of print materials for books, magazines, newspapers, and other print products. Asia Pulp and Paper byproducts such as logs are shipped from Indonesia to Europe where they are converted into pulp at mills situated in Northern Europe.

Uses of the Pulp and Paper byproduct

1. Coal

Pulp is produced from either hardwood or softwood. The pulp is first boiled to remove impurities, and then the sugars are removed and frozen out of the hydrolysate. At this point, it is called black liquor as it is dark in color, similar to coffee. The black liquor is then processed through a gasification plant to produce synthesis gas or syngas, which can be used as a feedstock for producing liquid fuels like methanol, ethanol, and diesel and gaseous fuel like hydrogen. Further conversion into synthetic crude oil may be required to meet the purity specifications for gasoline and diesel fuel production.

2. Fuels

About 40–60% of the woody volume of a hardwood tree may be sawed into lumber. This is one of Asia Pulp and Paper byproducts. Sawmill use of bark is limited because the thinner bark is susceptible to damage and contamination. Paper logs are then chipped and transported to a pulp mill for groundwood production or to a paper mill for chemical pulping. Chips for the groundwood mill are large, about 2 inches (5 cm) across the butt, although they are usually cut larger on the logging slope when possible. Chips for chemical pulping are usually cut to about 3 cm (1 in) in diameter and length, although this depends on how much waste can be tolerated in manufacturing operations.

3. Environmental effects

Forests have many uses and services, not just timber production. When pulpwood trees are harvested, some of these other values are also affected. Some of the changes that occur when a pulpwood crop is established include reduced soil erosion by reducing the slope of the land, increased water infiltration due to fewer leaves and branches on the forest floor, and less organic matter available for microorganisms in soil due to reduced leaf litter. The ground level in a young stand will be markedly lower than in mature stands because of the lack of large branches and leaves. Trees take up amounts of nitrogen from the atmosphere with their needles or leaves (although this is only about 1-2% by mass). Litter decomposes and provides cover for soil organisms that are important for soils to be productive. And the reduction of vegetation speedily impairs seedling establishment and survival.

4. Cancellation of timber harvesting

One of the most important uses in Asia Pulp and Paper is that of raw material for papermaking. Trees are cut down, transported to remote areas, and cut into sections. Treetops are chipped into chips with a diameter of about 2 cm (0.8 in) by the mills and further processed in various ways for the production of pulp. The wood is then transported to major mills for processing into pulp, which is used to make paper pulp. Since pulpwood trees produce more bark than can be processed at a single site, the loggers must find another place to take their logs after they have produced enough logs from a single area for their own consumption or sale.